Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State India.

Thursday, 22nd of September 2016 Print

Indian J Med Res. 2016 Feb;143(2):227-31. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.180214.

Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State India.

Vaidya SR1 Kamble MB Chowdhury DT Kumbhar NS.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:

Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology virus isolation and genotyping.

METHODS:

Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells.

RESULTS:

Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks 61 were confirmed as measles 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated.

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS:

Altogether 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

 

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