Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

Tuesday, 17th of May 2016 Print

PLoS One. 2016 May 6;11(5):e0154997. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154997. eCollection 2016.

Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

Mvula H1 Heinsbroek E2 Chihana M1 Crampin AC13 Kabuluzi S4 Chirwa G4 Mwansambo C5Costello A6 Cunliffe NA2 Heyderman RS789 French N29 Bar-Zeev N29VacSurv Consortium.

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Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.


Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13 or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13 RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.


Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36) 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.


Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.


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