TIMELINESS OF CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS IN KAMPALA UGANDA: A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY.

Wednesday, 11th of September 2013 Print
[source]PLoS One[|source]

The authors of this article show case for moving from monitoring immunization services utilization using the number of vaccinations accumulated by specified antigen and ages. They analyze timeliness of vaccination a setting that shows that children rarely receive all vaccinations as recommended. The authors urge ministries of health to use timeliness of vaccinations along with other measures to determine children s susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases and to evaluate the quality of vaccination programs. The report then concludes by identifying the categories of mothers that require additional and targeted support to receive their vaccinations on time. More details available at:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335141/

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually emphasized in estimating population immunity. In addition to examining timeliness of the recommended Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI) vaccines, this paper identifies predictors of untimely vaccination among children aged 10 to 23 months in Kampala.

METHODS: In addition to the household survey interview questions, additional data sources for variables included data collection of child s weight and length. Vaccination dates were obtained from child health cards. Timeliness of vaccinations were assessed with Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis for each vaccine based on the following time ranges (lowest-highest target age): BCG (birth-8 weeks), polio 0 (birth-4 weeks), three polio and three pentavalent vaccines (4 weeks-2 months; 8 weeks-4 months; 12 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccine (38 weeks-12 months). Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with vaccination timeliness.

RESULTS: About half of 821 children received all vaccines within the recommended time ranges (45.6%; 95% CI 39.8-51.2). Timely receipt of vaccinations was lowest for measles (67.5%; 95% CI 60.5-73.8) and highest for BCG vaccine (92.7%: 95% CI 88.1-95.6). For measles, 10.7% (95% CI 6.8-16.4) of the vaccinations were administered earlier than the recommended time. Vaccinations that were not received within the recommended age ranges were associated with increasing number of children per woman (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR); 1.84, 95% CI 1.29-2.64), non-delivery at health facilities (AHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.46), being unmarried (AHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94) or being in the lowest wealth quintile (AHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72).

CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve vaccination practices among the poorest, single, multiparous women and among mothers who do not deliver at health facilities are necessary to improve timeliness of vaccinations.

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